i9o HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION might be possible for ordinary children to acquire a knowledge of the Bible and the catechism, and to be taught physical exercises and music (which he commends for their effect on body and mind); but the study of Latin, Greek and Hebrew—the " languages "—is plainly intended for the more select group of scholars in training as preachers, or teachers, or officers of State. So also is mathematics, which he conjoins elsewhere with dialectic and rhetoric as subjects of university standing. In view of his desire to have the Bible in the hands of the people in their own language, the absence of any mention of provision for instruction in the vernacular is a notable and somewhat surprising omission. That, he says, is best learned " from ordinary speech at home, in the market-place, and in the pulpit." Obviously what was involved in his scheme was a distinction between elementary schools for the children of the people, and higher language schools for those who were likely to occupy positions of responsi- bility in civil or ecclesiastical life; and though the distinction was not clearly drawn by himself, it soon made its appearance in the school systems of the Protestant States. 3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTESTANT EDUCATION IN GERMANY Luther's call for a reformation of education as an essential part of the greater Reformation on which Germany had em- barked met a ready response both from the princes and from the scholars who had adopted the Protestant faith; and as a result of the co-operation of the civil authorities with the repre- sentatives of learning and piety, the work of educational recon- struction went rapidly forward. Attention was mainly directed to the universities and the higher schools. In the first place, the medieval city schools which were to be found in most of the larger centres were gradually re-organized, and some additions were made to their number. And after 1543, when Maurice of Saxony established three Princes' Schools with endowments set free by the dissolution of the monasteries, there arose by the side of the city schools a more modern type of school, financed and controlled by the States with a view to their own social needs.